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Plane crash for unknown reason modifies Brazilian election

Eduardo Campos' death introduces a new candidate, Marina Silva, whose presence in a possible second round would bring together the most conservative forces, endangering the sequence of 12 years of progressive governments leaded by Lula and Dilma Rousseff

20/08/2014 - The crash of the plane of Eduardo Campos, who was a presidential candidate from the coalition headed by the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) changed considerably the outlook of the Brazilian presidential elections, whose first round will happen on October 5th of 2014. Because of the death of the candidate, his vice-president candidate, Marina Silva, became a presidential candidate. Thus, the conjunction of several reasons - the fact that Marina had nearly 20% of the valid votes as a presidential candidate in the last elections, in 2010, her current little identification with the political parties, differently from Campos, very identified with the PSB, and the shock itself due to the death of Campos - gives Marina the potential to beat Aécio Neves, the candidate of the PSDB (Brazilian Social Democracy Party), and in the second round, to bring together the most conservative sectors of the politics of Brasil, in order to try to defeat the current president, Dilma Roussef, and to finish the sequence of 12 years in which the most progressive sectors of the political spectrum of the country leaded the Brazilian State, throughout eight years with Lula and four years with Dilma Rousseff.

A very important matter is how much Dilma Rousseff will be capable of bringing together the most progressive sectors of the Brazilian politics. The importance of this is that the more the progressivism supports Dilma, the less space Marina would have in this sector of the political spectrum, and as a result, Marina would have to strongly contest with Aécio Neves for the vote of the most conservative sectors. Thus, if Dilma widely takes up the progressive spectrum, Marina would have less chances to qualify for the second round, and - last but not least - if she qualifies for the second round, she would be powerfully identified with the most conservative sectors of the politics of the country, which would reduce her chances to beat Dilma Rousseff in the second round.

Since Dilma and Marina (as well as Eduardo Campos) were ministers of Lula, part of the Brazilian progressivism could have the hope that even if Marina wins the election, a government with a progressive parliamentary base could be formed, also including the party of Lula and Dilma Rousseff, the PT (Party of the Workers). However, due to the polarizing dynamics of the second round, a possible candidacy of Marina in this second round would be supported massively by the most conservative parties of the political spectrum, forging a conservative parliamentary base for her hypothetical government, without the participation of the PT. Therefore, the new scene represents a political challenge to the Brazilian electorate, who even with the change of the candidacy of Campos for the candidacy of Marina, still has in front of itself the choice between a government which would form a coalition with the most progressive sectors of the Brazilian parliament, headed by Dilma Rousseff, or a government which would form a coalition with the most conservative sectors of the Brazilian parliament, headed by Marina Silva or Aécio Neves. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info.



Ed Miliband: more progressivism in British influence worldwide

The Labour Party candidate to become the next prime minister, who is Jewish and from a Polish family, reformed his party and, in the next May elections, is the hope that the United Kingdom could use its worldwide influence to help to reform the UN Security Council

08/08/2014 - The United Kingdom politics is very close to give a mayor progressive step. Although it is not a very mentioned issue in the world media, the Labour Party leader, Ed Miliband, is the favorite one to be the next prime minister of the country, in the parliamentary elections on May 2015. The great progressive impulse of Miliband, in comparison with the last period when Labour was in power, between 1997 and 2010, derives from the fact that he defeated the most conservative wing of the party when he assumed leadership of the Labour Party in 2010.

Indeed, four years ago, especially with the massive support of the unions, Ed Miliband defeated, by 50,54% to 49,35% of the Labour Party electoral college, his own brother, David Miliband. During the period as party leader, Ed Miliband drove important internal reforms which changed the party's financing system and the decision-making processes, improving its level of democracy and its popular representation. This established the political infrastructure required to allow Miliband to present himself as a clear advance in comparison with the Labour administrations of Tony Blair (1997-2007) and Gordon Brown (2007-2010).

Next May elections in the United Kingdom will be contested by the first-past-the-post system. Thus, the person with more votes in each constituency wins the election, even if he or she has, for instance, 25% of the votes. Because of this system, the existence of more than three or four parties with a significant portion of the votes and seats in the national parliament is unviable. In these May elections, there is a strong tendency to an intense polarization between the Labour Party and the Conservative Party, of the current prime minister, David Cameron. The Liberal Democrat Party will probably have a very low voting in historical terms, and the UKIP (United Kingdom Independence Party), despite there is still a lot of uncertainty regarding its voting potential, tends to lose a considerable part of its possible votes especially to the Conservative Party.

The possible assumption of Ed Miliband as prime minister of the United Kingdom would cause many changes in the country stances. Miliband, who is Jewish from a Polish family, would strongly tend to modify the current behavior of the British government regarding the European Union (EU), probably, if the situation in the EU remains stable, not supporting the fulfilment of the referendum about leaving the EU promised by Cameron. A Miliband administration also would tend to use the worldwide influence of the country to stimulate the United Nations (UN) to involve itself more actively and efficiently in the implementation of the two states solution regarding Israel and Palestine. Besides, the United Kingdom, as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, would have a very stronger tendency to actively participate of the UN Security Council reform, which would modify its composition in order to turn it more representative of the world population and more consistent with the current global political landscape. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info.



Warren, like Obama, can defeat Hillary and become US president

Senator Elizabeth Warren is electrifying the most progressive sectors of the United States, but she still have not assumed the candidacy in the primaries; her support grows exponentially and the candidacy is potentially overwhelming

24/07/2014 - In 2007 and 2008, the world saw a senator almost unknown from the general public, Barack Obama, defeat Hillary Clinton in the US primaries and get the nomination as the Democratic Party candidate to the presidency of the country. In 2015 and 2016, the phenomenon could happen again. The senator who has real possibilities to defeat Hillary in the Democratic Party primaries is Elizabeth Warren. She was elected for the first time to the Senate in 2012 by the state of Massachusetts.

Warren has a political profile very different from Hillary. The Massachusetts senator focus on the action of the state to protect people who can have serious financial problems because of their relationship with the banks regarding mortgages, credit cards and other types of loan. Taking in account the current economic and financial situation of the United States, it can be said not only that a Warren candidacy is considerably more progressive than a Hillary candidacy, but also that it has better chances to win the dispute with the Republican Party.

This happens because, with the exception of the fact that Hillary is more well-known, Warren is very less subject to the usual conservative arguments. Thus, the viability of the Warren candidacy in the dispute with the Republicans would be assured because of the Democratic primaries campaign, which would make Warren well-known in the country, and probably in the world. Warren still have not assumed the candidacy in the primaries, but based on the answers she uses to give when she is questioned about the issue, she is leaving the matter open. At this point, if she was sure about not being a candidate, she would say it leaving no room to doubt.

The United States have an electoral system which, because of the combination of absence of a second round and the existence of the electoral college, makes the two-party system extremely strong and almost inflexible. Thus, the presidential elections at the end of 2016 in the country should not be analyzed like the two-party systems in general. In the United States, the primaries are practically part of the general election, in the sense that in essence, they have the function of the first round in the great majority of the elections with a second round. What we will see at the end of 2016 will be like a second round. A victory of Warren at the end of 2016 would be the greatest achievement of the progressivism of the United States at least since the four consecutive victories of the Democratic Party with Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info.



Mercosur and Pacific Alliance: toward a Latin American State

The current closeness between the two giant Latin American blocks raises the real possibility of a democratic integration; the blocks keep growing, as Bolivia, which will have general elections on next October 12th, is about to join Mercosur

09/07/2014 - The current president of Bolivia, Evo Morales, heads toward his reelection in the general elections of the country, on next October 12th. Among the main presidential candidates, nobody seems to have considerable chances of beat Evo, even because the electoral rules establish that if in the first round a presidential candidate has more than 40% of the votes and is more than 10% ahead of the second place candidate, he or she will be elected. Regarding the bicameral parliament, it's also very probable that the party of the current president, the Movement to Socialism (MAS), will win the elections.

The main presidential candidates are, besides Evo, Samuel Doria Medina, from the coalition headed by the National Unity Front (UN), and Juan del Granado, from the Without Fear Movement (MSM). Medina lost the 2005 and 2009 elections to Evo, and represents the most conservative sectors of the politics of the country. In turn, Juan del Granado is less conservative than Medina, but in these elections he is far from being able to beat Evo Morales, who since took office on 2005 is improving intensely the economy of the country and the living standards of the Bolivian people. The presidency and the parliament have a term of office of 5 years.

The country is about to join Mercosur, currently formed by Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay and Paraguay. In order to become a full member of Mercosur, it's still necessary the approval of the parliaments of Brazil and Paraguay. Regarding these two countries, the process tends to be more complex in Paraguay, whose politics recently went through an important crisis, with the withdrawal from power of the former president Fernando Lugo, in 2012. The countries of Mercosur considered that there was a break in democracy in this withdrawal from power, and that's why Paraguay was suspended from Mercosur until the democratic elections in the country were carried out on April 2013.

The inclusion of Bolivia in the Mercosur is part of the Latin American integration, which besides Mercosur, is drived by another major block, the Pacific Alliance, currently formed by Chile, Peru, Colombia and Mexico. The Pacific Alliance initially was widely considered as an instrument of the Latin American conservatism, but since the Pacific Alliance and Mercosur are coming together, if in the next decades occurs a fusion between the two blocks, it could represent one of the most progressive events in the history of Latin America.

Regarding this process, a very important issue for Latin America is if this integration could include the institution of democratic mechanisms for all the region, with one vote by person and governments formed by majority, that is to say, if it will be created a democratic Latin American State. The experience of the European Union integration indicates that without the implementation of this democracy, the Latin American integration could become, throughout the decades, less and less beneficial to the people, because it would lack sufficiently efficient decision mechanisms. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info



Proportional electoral system protects Sweden from extremisms

In order to govern the country, a party needs more than 50% of the votes of the Swedes; if the system were first past the post, as in the United Kingdom and India, minorities between 30% and 40% could govern the country

24/06/2014 - On September 14th of 2014, Sweden will carry out general elections, in which the 349 seats of its parliament will be contested. This voting happens during a time of electoral growing of the far-right parties in the country. The biggest one, the Sweden Democrats (SD) got 9,7% in the last European Parliament elections, which happened on May 2014. However, as the electoral system of the country is proportional, it´s extremely difficult that a party in the extreme of the political spectrum could get the power in the country.

This happens because in the proportional system, as in Sweden, in order to get the majority of the parliament, a party needs more than 50% of the votes of the country. In first past the post system, as in Canada, United Kingdom and India, very often governments are formed by parties that got the majority of the parliament with a voting between 30% and 40% of the people of the country. This lower percentage is more easily achieved by extremists parties than a percentage greater than 50%.

Thus, despite the far-right growing in Sweden, the other parties of the political spectrum are only moderately pressed to approximate their program to the program of the far-right parties. Regarding the September 14th elections, the most probable prime minister in this parliamentary system is Stefan Löfven, leader of the Social Democratic Party. However, it's also very probable that the Social Democratic Party won't get alone the majority of the parliament, but it's not clear yet what type of coalition the party would form if it assumes the leading of the government.

The Swedish parliament is unicameral, with a term of office of 4 years and open list voting, that is to say, the voters can choose the party and, inside de party, which candidate he or she prefers. This open list system is used in several countries like Brazil and the Netherlands. These elections in Sweden happens in the context of the formation of a new polarization in the European society. The polarization between right and left dominated European politics since the end of the World War II, but there is a new polarization rising, between the tendency to the European integration on democratic basis, and the tendency to the absence of European integration on democratic basis. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info



Brazil: understand one of the most important elections in the world

Despite not being a military superpower, Brazil is a diplomatic superpower which has been using the democratic mechanisms to transform global institutions like UN, WTO and Internet

10/06/2014 - In the past few years, Brazil has been going through a process of internal and external discovery, where both inside and outside of Brazil, the perception about what is the country, its development level, its influence and its history is becoming more and more precise. However, this "discovery" could be not just a discovery, but a rediscovery. Why? Because Brazil has already gone through a phase like this before, which was interrupted by a coup that ended the democracy of the country in 1964.

From 1930 until 1964, Brazil went through a process of intense development, which culminated in a democracy of high quality for that time standards, in the 50's and 60's of the 20th century (in that time, for instance, in Switzerland women were not allowed to vote, whereas in Brazil they were). In 1964, the State of the USA and some Brazilian sectors organized a coup that ended the Brazilian democracy, which led the country to several decades of a slower development of its civilization. Brazilian people only could elect their president again in a direct and democratic way in 1989, 25 years later the 1964 coup.

Thus, after the redemocratization of Brazil, the people of the country could organize itself again in political parties and social movements, with freedom of expression and manifestation. The successive elections strengthened the representativity of the Brazilian State, which led this State to benefit increasingly a wider portion of the population, and to become more and more a tool for development and less every time a tool to keep privileges. It's in this context of rediscovery of the country that the general elections of Brazil will be contested on October 5th of 2014.

Brazil is a presidencialist country. Therefore, the presidential election is the most influent one. On October 5th, besides the first round of the presidential elections, parliamentary elections, which strongly influence the behavior of the Brazilian State, will be contested as well. If no presidential candidate gets more than 50% of the votes in the first round, a second round will be contested on October 26th. The candidates who probably will get, adding their votes, the great majority of the votes in the first round are the current president, Dilma Rousseff, from the coalition leaded by the Workers Party (PT), the senator Aécio Neves, from the coalition leaded by the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), and the former governor of the state of Pernambuco Eduardo Campos, from the coalition leaded by the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB).

It's not possible yet to know if a second round will be necessary, because Dilma Rousseff can win with more than 50% of the votes in the first round. However, it's likely that a second round will be contested by Dilma Roussef and Aécio Neves. In the context of Brazilian history, the candidacy of Dilma Rousseff is more politically closer to the social, economic and media sectors which were relatively majoritarian regarding the influence on the Brazilian State from 1930 until 1964, whereas the candidacy of Aécio Neves is more politically closer to the social, economic and media sectors which organized the 1964 coup and were relatively majoritarian regarding the influence on the Brazilian State during the last dictatorial period of the country. Click here to become a financial contributor of politicalculture.info.



It's time for the European Union: democratization or dissolution

If the European Parliament elected on last May 25th doesn't choose the president of the European Commission, that is to say, if the European Union doesn't implement a democratic regime, the dissolution of the bloc will be only a matter of time. A short time.

27/05/2014 - The European Union, despite the fact that it is composed of countries with democratic regimes, doesn't have a democratic regime. Until now, the most influential post of the entity, the presidency of the European Commission, which is the main executive body of the European Union, was practically appointed by the European Council using a system that is very far of the democratic principle of making decisions based on majority, because it allows relatively small minorities to veto a nomination, which means that the European Union is a structurally conservative entity, like all undemocratic regimes. This situation can change as from the election of the European Parliament on last May 25th.

For the first time in history, it's possible that the European Parliament chooses the president of the European Commission. Since the European Parliament is chosen proportionally to the population of the European Union, and this parliament would choose the president of the European Commission using one of the main principles of democracy, which is the decision based on the majority of its members, if this time this new decision process is implemented, it could be said that the European Union achieved democracy. The elections occurred on May 25th confirmed that there are two candidates with chances to become the next president of the European Commission: Jean-Claude Juncker, from the Group of the European Popular Party (EPP), who is the big favorite, and Martin Schulz, from the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D), who hypothetically could build a majority.

There are 751 seats in this elected European Parliament. The EPP got 213 seats, the S&D got 190 seats, the ALDE (liberal democrats) got 64 seats, the Greens/EFA (ecologists) got 53 seats, the ECR (conservatives) got 46 seats, the GUE/NGL (far left) got 42 seats, the EFD (ultra-conservatives) got 38 seats, and 105 members of Parliament are not part of any group of the European Parliament. The fact that the EPP, which is more conservative than the S&D, got more seats than the S&D (213 to 190), reduces the chances that the European Parliament chooses the president of the European Commission. If the S&D had gotten the largest number of seats, it would be almost inevitable that Martin Schulz were the next president of the European Commission.

On the other hand, Juncker, despite the fact that he defends his nomination for the post, is the leader of a party which has less tendency to support that the European Parliament chooses the president of the European Commission than the S&D. Thus, there is a real chance that the European Parliament won't choose this president. This would keep the European Union as an undemocratic entity and would contribute to increase the speed of its course towards the destiny of the current political entities based on undemocratic principles, which is its dissolution in the medium term. The alternative to the dissolution is the democratization. The next weeks will tell whether the European Union will keep its course towards its dissolution or change its course towards democratization. Click here to watch the video about the news article.



What do Ukraine and Honduras have in common? The type of coup.

This type of coup against mainly presidential democracies consists of moving the president away by force from the country (by abduction or escape), giving the impression that exists a vacuum of power and making it easier for the majority of the parliament to take power

13/05/2014 - In order to analyze the presidential elections on May 25th in Ukraine, it's indispensable to have the best possible understanding of how the February 2014 coup ocurred in the country because the political environment will still be influenced by the coup, which occurred only three months ago. There is a current of thought in the world, particularly strong in the United States and Western Europe, which affirms that there was not a breakage of the democratic institutionality in the events of last February. Thus, let's analyze more deeply the issue.

The version of reality of this current of thought which denies that there was a coup is that president Viktor Yanukovych fled Ukraine on February 2014 after popular protests and subsequently the parliament chose by majority vote a new Constitution, a new president and a new prime minister. Therefore, as the parliament was democratically elected, a breakage of the democratic institutionality would not have occurred. This could correspond to reality if the only democratically elected power was the parliament. Since the president also was democratically elected, and there was not resignation nor approval of the minimum legal percentage of the parliament to remove the president from the post, there was a breakage of the democratic institutionality.

Regarding the presidential election on May 25th, nearly 20% of the population that Ukraine had before the coup probably won't participate in this election as this population lives in the three regions (Crimea, Lugansk and Donetsk) which decided through referendum to stop being politically subordinated to Ukraine. Until now, from these three regions, only Crimea decided through this referendum to join Russia. Since Ukraine is in the beginning stages of a civil war between groups favorable and opposite to the February coup, the conditions for democratic elections are very precarious. However, the May 25th presidential election could represent an improvement towards the return of the democracy in the country.

As Ukraine is going through a dictatorial period supported by the United States and the European Union, and it is in the beginning stages of a civil war, relatively precise informations about the electoral reality are extremely limited. What can be said is that the necessity, or not, of a second round is one of the great questions of this first round of the presidential election, which depends on a candidate getting 50% of the votes on May 25th. Depending on the candidates who participate in this possible second round, the political scene could be very different, because, for instance, a contest between a candidate who supported the coup and one who did not would be very different from a contest between two candidates who supported the coup. Click here to watch the video about the news article.



Progressivism and conservatism contest the election in Egypt

The presidential candidates on May 26th and 27th voting will be Hamdeen Sabahi, closer to liberal, secular and leftist sectors, and Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, who were commander of the armed forces when they overthrew the democratically elected president Mohamed Morsi

29/04/2014 - The democratization process of Egypt, which received a great impulse in the beginnings of 2011 with the fall of the dictator Hosni Mubarak, will have another chapter in the next presidential elections on May 26th and 27th of 2014. There will be only two candidates: Hamdeen Sabahi, from the Egyptian Popular Current, political group closer to liberal, secular and leftist sectors, who is constructing a relatively progressive coalition, and Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, with a more conservative profile and who were commander of the armed forces when they overthrew the democratically elected former president Mohamed Morsi in July 2013.

Regarding the chances of the two candidates, it can be noted that in the first round of the 2012 presidential elections, Sabahi got nearly 21% of the votes, percentage very close to the other two candidates who contested the second round, Ahmed Shafik, with nearly 24%, and Mohamed Morsi, with nearly 25%. Thus, considering that in 2012 there were 13 candidates, the electoral viability of Sabahi seems to be evident. El-Sisi, in turn, for his connection with the overthrow of Morsi, rely on the sectors more opposite to the administration of Morsi and the sectors closer to the administration of Mubarak.

Currently, the political group of the former president Morsi, the Muslim Brotherhood, is considered by the state of Egypt an illegal entity. Since this political group is supported by a considerable part of the population of the country, and an indication of this is the election of Morsi as president in 2012, the prohibition of the participation of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 2014 presidential elections strongly affects this voting fulfillment of the minimum democratic standards. However, if Sabahi has a relatively freedom to carry out his electoral campaign, it's possible that the Egyptian people could have a real possibility of choice.

Egypt has nearly 86 million people, 1 million km² and is located in the north of Africa. The democratization of Egypt would provide a relevant impulse to the democratization of the Arab world and the improving, at least in the medium term, of the living standards of the population of the country. Besides, a democratic Egypt would significantly facilitate the solution of the conflict between Israel and Palestine. After these presidential elections in Egypt, parliamentary elections are expected to happen in the middle of 2014. Click here to watch the video about the news article.



Mandela's party is the favorite to winning the South African elections

In the general elections on the next May 7th, a victory of the African National Congress would keep the state of this country, part of BRICS, with a progressive orientation for the next 5 years

17/04/2014 - The African National Congress (ANC), party of Nelson Mandela, ex-president of South Africa deceased in December of last year, possibly will win the general elections in the next May 7th, but the historic tendency, specially after Mandela'€™s death, is a decrease in the ANC's percentage of votes. This decrease does not have necessarily as a cause the performance of the ANC in the government, but the fact that the electoral system of the country is parliamentary with proportional voting. In this system, with a sole party having for 4 following elections (1994, 1999, 2004 and 2009) more than 60% of the votes is something in general explained by phenomena like, in the case of South Africa, the union of the commotion about the end of the "apartheid" with the influence of a very charismatic leader, Nelson Mandela.

However, it is very difficult to foresee when and with which intensity this decrease of the vote's percentage of ANC is going to happen, and if it does, it won'™t mean necessarily that the politics in the country will become less progressive, but it could mean that more progressive sectors will be dividing into several parties. Regarding this election on the next May 7th, the current president of the country, Jacob Zuma, has great probabilities of continuing for more 5 years in the position. The country has a bicameral parliament in which the lower chamber is the one who chooses the president. The lower chamber has 400 seats and, besides choosing the president, has slightly more power in the legislation process than the higher chamber, that has 90 seats.

South Africa has about 53 million people and 1,22 million km². The country is part of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), a group of countries that has the potential of at least equalling its influence, in a coming future, to the one of the group formed by the Western Europe and the countries who where historically populating colonies of the Western Europe with a majority of population from these European countries (United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand). This origin in the Western Europe explains why this last group is often called "€œWest"€ nowadays, word that definitely is not adjusted to the reality of the present world, because this group of countries would need to include Latin America and a significant part of Africa for the word "€œWest"€ to become minimally appropriated.

The democracy in South Africa is very meaningful for the process of democratization of Africa, as the stability of the South African democracy supports a series of processes of democratic consolidation in several African countries. This, without telling the important role of South Africa in the construction and strengthening of the African Union, organization that allows Africa, although its countries having individually little influence globally, to have, united, an increasingly influence in the global politics. Click here to watch the video about the news article.



Progressive center-left wins elections in El Salvador

04/04/2014 - Salvador Sánchez Cerén, from the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), won the second round of the presidential elections in El Salvador, which happened on last March 9th. He defeated Norman Quijano, from the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA), 50,11% to 49,89%. The term of office of the new president is 5 years, without reelection immediately after the end of the term of office. He will replace Mauricio Funes, also from the FMLN. El Salvador has a presidential system.

The term of office of the unicameral parliament is three years, and it has 84 seats. The last parliamentary election happened in 2012, and it's very likely that Cerén's government will include other political sectors besides the FMLN, which has 31 seats. Thus, regarding the political spectrum, after this presidential elections, El Salvador will have a government of the progressive center-left, whereas a victory of Quijano would lead the country to have a government of the conservative right. El Salvador is located in Central America and has a population of nearly 6,2 million people.

Regarding the regional context, the victory of the more progressive candidacy in El Salvador means a greater advance of the integration of Central America and Latin America, as well as the continuation of the consolidation of democracy in the Latin American region, which suffered a strong setback in the 2009 coup in Honduras, carried out mainly by the rightist sector of the political spectrum of the country. In order to reduce the possibility of coups carried out mainly by the political right of the region, it would be very important that the left of the Latin American political spectrum support the democratization of Cuba.

The victory of Cerén in El Salvador also tends to keep the decrease of the poverty in the country, contributing to the intense decrease of the poverty in Latin America especially during the last 15 years, when the level of progressiveness of the Latin American governments increased significantly, mainly because of the raise to power of a lot of leftist political forces which were not allowed to compete in democratic elections when the region were dominated by rightist dictatorships, particularly during the Cold War. Click here to watch the video about the news article